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Snowden’s New Zealand GCSB Files: Spying on 20+ Countries Including Own Citizens for NSA

In Archive, Five Eyes, GCSB, New Zealand, NSA, NSA Files, Surveillance on March 13, 2015 at 12:07 PM

03/05/2015

Nicky Hager/Ryan Gallagher/NZHerald:

New Zealand’s electronic surveillance agency, the GCSB, has dramatically expanded its spying operations during the years of John Key’s National Government and is automatically funnelling vast amounts of intelligence to the US National Security Agency, top-secret documents reveal.

Since 2009, the Government Communications Security Bureau intelligence base at Waihopai has moved to “full-take collection”, indiscriminately intercepting Asia-Pacific communications and providing them en masse to the NSA through the controversial NSA intelligence system XKEYSCORE, which is used to monitor emails and internet browsing habits.

Last year, Mr Key refused to say whether the GCSB uses XKEYSCORE.

The documents, provided by US whistleblower whistleblower Edward Snowden, reveal that most of the targets are not security threats to New Zealand, as has been suggested by the Government.

Instead, the GCSB directs its spying against a surprising array of New Zealand’s friends, trading partners and close Pacific neighbours. These countries’ communications are supplied directly to the NSA and other Five Eyes agencies with little New Zealand oversight or decision-making, as a contribution to US worldwide surveillance.

The New Zealand revelations mirror what the Snowden documents showed in Europe, where the US and Britain were found to be spying on supposedly close and friendly neighbouring nations in the European Union.

The Herald has collaborated with US news site The Intercept to report on the New Zealand-oriented Snowden papers. They reveal the secret activity called signals intelligence – the interception of private phone calls, emails and internet chats – globally.

nz-asia-pacific-spying

The documents identify nearly two dozen countries that are intensively spied on by the GCSB. On the target list are most of New Zealand’s Pacific neighbours, including small and vulnerable nations such as Tuvalu, Nauru, Kiribati and Samoa.

Other South Pacific GCSB targets are Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, New Caledonia, Fiji, Tonga and French Polynesia. The spy agency intercepts the flows of communications between these countries and then breaks them down into individual emails, phone calls, social media messages and other types of communications. All this intelligence is immediately made available to the NSA, which is based in Maryland, near Washington, DC.

The South Pacific targeting was confirmed by a New Zealand intelligence source, who said the GCSB monitoring included Pacific government ministers and senior officials, government agencies, international organisations and non-government organisations.

More…

Source Documents:

GCSB Asia-Pacific Spying/NSA XKEYSCORE – SIGINT Development Quarterly Report (July 2009)
GCSB Provide NSA New Zealand Data
GCSB XKEYSCORE IRONSAND Access: Multiple Choice Test & Check Box
GCSB/ASD/NZSIS/ASIS South-Pacific Spying High-Priority

inside-waihopai-domes

03/08/2015

Nicky Hager/Ryan Gallagher/Stuff:

The Waihopai intelligence base looks oddly alien and out of place: huge white “golf ball” radomes like a moon station and silent buildings within two fences of razor wire, all dropped in the midst of vineyards and dry hills in New Zealand’s Marlborough landscape.

Documents about the Waihopai station leaked by US National Security Agency (NSA) whistleblower Edward Snowden show that the facility is as alien as is seems.

Everything inside the top secret station except the staff is foreign.

The electronic eavesdropping systems, the computer programmes that automatically index and search the captured communications, and the databases where details of a whole region’s communications are stored: they are all standardised parts of the global surveillance system run by the NSA.

The Waihopai base functions as a cog in that spying machine, the alliance’s main eye on the South Pacific region.

The Sunday Star-Times analysed the documents in collaboration with US news website The Intercept, which obtained them from Snowden. The leaked files reveal in unprecedented detail the New Zealand-based station’s targets, inner workings and links to the international network of spy facilities run by the Five Eyes.

Altogether, these bases can snoop on the entire world, friend as well as foe.

The leaked documents do not talk about “Waihopai”. They use the station’s secret Five Eyes code name Ironsand (“IS”). It’s not clear why Waihopai is Ironsand.

An NSA map shows it is one of a global network of oddly-named satellite interception stations. These stations are the eyes of the Five Eyes alliance.

Australia has a base near Geraldton, a small port city on the west coast of Australia. Its codename is Stellar.

The British station in Oman has the codename Snick. Britain’s Kenya base is known as Scapel. Britain also spies on satellites from Carboy, a station in Cornwall, and from a base in Cyprus called Sounder.

The American equivalents of Waihopai are Jackknife in Washington State on the Pacific coast, Timberline in West Virginia and Coraline in Puerto Rico in the Caribbean. The biggest of these is the Moonpenny base in Harrogate, Yorkshire.

The New Zealand station is viewed by the alliance as just another base in its network. It is marked on the map as a “Second Party” site. In the Five Eyes alliance, the US is first party and Britain, Canada, Australia and New Zealand are second parties.

There are also colourful code names – Juggernaut, Legalreptile, and Venusaffect, for example – for the intelligence programmes used inside the Waihopai base.

What do these systems do?

More…

Source Documents:

GCSB Update April 22 2010
GCSB Update March 21 2012
GCSB Second Party National Identity Rules

03/11/2015

Nicky Hager/Ryan Gallagher/NZHerald:

New Zealand spies on Vietnam, China, India, Pakistan, South American nations and a range of other countries to help fill gaps in worldwide surveillance operations by the United States National Security Agency (NSA), documents show.

The documents, obtained by NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden and shared with the Herald, highlight discrepancies between secret and official foreign policy adopted by New Zealand. They expose the extent of Government Communications Security Bureau (GCSB) contributions to the Five Eyes, a surveillance alliance New Zealand is part of alongside the US, Britain, Canada, and Australia.

In April 2013, weeks before Snowden finished gathering NSA documents and flew to Hong Kong, an NSA officer completed a top-secret review outlining what the GCSB contributes within the US-led alliance.

The Herald analysed this document and others in collaboration with US news website The Intercept, which obtained them from Snowden.

The NSA profile of the GCSB reveals the New Zealand organisation is running spying operations against 20 or more countries, including friendly nations and trading partners.

The eavesdropping stretches from India and Iran in Asia to isolated scientific bases in Antarctica. These countries are listed in the NSA report in a section headed “What Partner Provides to NSA”.

The NSA officer’s review said the GCSB “continues to be especially helpful in its ability to provide NSA ready access to areas and countries … difficult for the US to access”.

It said the “GCSB provides collection on China, Japanese/North Korean/Vietnamese/South American diplomatic communications, South Pacific island nations, Pakistan, India, Iran and Antarctica”.

“Collection” means the GCSB conducts active surveillance on these countries and territories. The report also lists French South Pacific territories and Afghanistan as GCSB targets. The document, called “NSA Intelligence Relationship with New Zealand” and given a top-secret classification, was prepared by the NSA’s Country Desk Officer for New Zealand based in the agency’s headquarters in Maryland.

There are three main ways that the GCSB contributes to the NSA’s worldwide surveillance:

Targeting countries using the Waihopai satellite interception base.

Accessing nations’ internal communication networks from covert listening posts hidden in New Zealand embassy and high commission buildings.

By GCSB staff helping to translate and analyse communications intercepted by other Five Eyes agencies.

More…

Source Documents:

NSA Intelligence Relationship with New Zealand (April 2013)
SIGNIT Development Forum (SDF) Minutes (June 2009)
WARRIORPRIDE Malware – SUSLOW Monthly Report (March 2013)

95bFM:

Investigate journalist Nicky Hager has made new allegations of espionage by the New Zealand Government.

Following on from his accusations that the Government Communications Security Bureau is spying on countries in the Pacific, Hager now says the GCSB also spies on a number of Asian countries, including China, Japan, India, Pakistan, as well as Iran, countries in South America and scientific bases in Antarctica.

Ben Leonard spoke to Nicky Hager about the new allegations.

Related Links:

Kim Dotcom’s “The Moment of Truth” w/ Glenn Greenwald, Edward Snowden & Julian Assange
Project SPEARGUN: NSA/GCSB Southern Cross Cable-Tapping Program

GCSB Project CORTEX: “US CISPA was Killed Because of Concerns Associated with Activity CORTEX Enables”

CIA’s “Jamboree” to Hack Apple Products: Break iPhone Security, Modified Xcode DevTool Backdoors, OS X Updater Keylogger

In Apple, Archive, CIA, Encryption, Hacking, NSA Files, Surveillance on March 12, 2015 at 8:38 PM

ispy

03/10/2015

Jeremy Scahill/Josh Begley/TheIntercept:

Researchers working with the Central Intelligence Agency have conducted a multi-year, sustained effort to break the security of Apple’s iPhones and iPads, according to top-secret documents obtained by The Intercept.

The security researchers presented their latest tactics and achievements at a secret annual gathering, called the “Jamboree,” where attendees discussed strategies for exploiting security flaws in household and commercial electronics. The conferences have spanned nearly a decade, with the first CIA-sponsored meeting taking place a year before the first iPhone was released.

By targeting essential security keys used to encrypt data stored on Apple’s devices, the researchers have sought to thwart the company’s attempts to provide mobile security to hundreds of millions of Apple customers across the globe. Studying both “physical” and “non-invasive” techniques, U.S. government-sponsored research has been aimed at discovering ways to decrypt and ultimately penetrate Apple’s encrypted firmware. This could enable spies to plant malicious code on Apple devices and seek out potential vulnerabilities in other parts of the iPhone and iPad currently masked by encryption.

The security researchers also claimed they had created a modified version of Apple’s proprietary software development tool, Xcode, which could sneak surveillance backdoors into any apps or programs created using the tool. Xcode, which is distributed by Apple to hundreds of thousands of developers, is used to create apps that are sold through Apple’s App Store.

The modified version of Xcode, the researchers claimed, could enable spies to steal passwords and grab messages on infected devices. Researchers also claimed the modified Xcode could “force all iOS applications to send embedded data to a listening post.” It remains unclear how intelligence agencies would get developers to use the poisoned version of Xcode.

Researchers also claimed they had successfully modified the OS X updater, a program used to deliver updates to laptop and desktop computers, to install a “keylogger.”

Other presentations at the CIA conference have focused on the products of Apple’s competitors, including Microsoft’s BitLocker encryption system, which is used widely on laptop and desktop computers running premium editions of Windows.

The revelations that the CIA has waged a secret campaign to defeat the security mechanisms built into Apple’s devices come as Apple and other tech giants are loudly resisting pressure from senior U.S. and U.K. government officials to weaken the security of their products. Law enforcement agencies want the companies to maintain the government’s ability to bypass security tools built into wireless devices. Perhaps more than any other corporate leader, Apple’s CEO, Tim Cook, has taken a stand for privacy as a core value, while sharply criticizing the actions of U.S. law enforcement and intelligence agencies.

“If U.S. products are OK to target, that’s news to me,” says Matthew Green, a cryptography expert at Johns Hopkins University’s Information Security Institute. “Tearing apart the products of U.S. manufacturers and potentially putting backdoors in software distributed by unknowing developers all seems to be going a bit beyond ‘targeting bad guys.’ It may be a means to an end, but it’s a hell of a means.”

Apple declined to comment for this story, instead pointing to previous comments Cook and the company have made defending Apple’s privacy record.

The CIA declined to comment for this story.

Read full article published by The Intercept here

Source Documents:

PONY EXPRESS: CSE Spying on Canadians’ Emails to Government

In Archive, Canada, CSEC, NSA Files, Surveillance on February 25, 2015 at 10:42 PM

cse-pony-express

02/25/2015

Ryan Gallagher/Glenn Greenwald/TheIntercept/CBC:

Canada’s electronic surveillance agency is covertly monitoring vast amounts of Canadians’ emails as part of a sweeping domestic cybersecurity operation, according to top-secret documents.

The surveillance initiative, revealed Wednesday by CBC News in collaboration with The Intercept, is sifting through millions of emails sent to Canadian government agencies and departments, archiving details about them on a database for months or even years.

The data mining operation is carried out by the Communications Security Establishment, or CSE, Canada’s equivalent of the National Security Agency. Its existence is disclosed in documents obtained by The Intercept from NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden.

The emails are vacuumed up by the Canadian agency as part of its mandate to defend against hacking attacks and malware targeting government computers. It relies on a system codenamed PONY EXPRESS to analyze the messages in a bid to detect potential cyber threats.

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Last year, CSE acknowledged it collected some private communications as part of cybersecurity efforts. But it refused to divulge the number of communications being stored or to explain for how long any intercepted messages would be retained.

Now, the Snowden documents shine a light for the first time on the huge scope of the operation — exposing the controversial details the government withheld from the public.

Under Canada’s criminal code, CSE is not allowed to eavesdrop on Canadians’ communications. But the agency can be granted special ministerial exemptions if its efforts are linked to protecting government infrastructure — a loophole that the Snowden documents show is being used to monitor the emails.

The latest revelations will trigger concerns about how Canadians’ private correspondence with government employees are being archived by the spy agency and potentially shared with police or allied surveillance agencies overseas, such as the NSA. Members of the public routinely communicate with government employees when, for instance, filing tax returns, writing a letter to a member of parliament, applying for employment insurance benefits or submitting a passport application.

In a top-secret CSE document on the security operation, dated from 2010, the agency says it “processes 400,000 emails per day” and admits that it is suffering from “information overload” because it is scooping up “too much data.”

PDF

The document outlines how CSE built a system to handle a massive 400 terabytes of data from Internet networks each month — including Canadians’ emails — as part of the cyber operation. (A single terabyte of data can hold about a billion pages of text, or about 250,000 average-sized mp3 files.)

The agency notes in the document that it is storing large amounts of “passively tapped network traffic” for “days to months,” encompassing the contents of emails, attachments and other online activity. It adds that it stores some kinds of metadata — data showing who has contacted whom and when, but not the content of the message — for “months to years.”

CSE, under its cyberdefence mandate, is allowed to hold on to personal information — email addresses, IP addresses and other identifiers — for up to 30 years, then transfer it to Library and Archives Canada, according to the agency’s own description of its databanks in the federal Info Source publication.

Of the masses of emails the agency was scanning and storing using PONY EXPRESS in 2010, however, only about 0.001 percent of them were deemed to contain potentially malicious viruses. According to the documents, the automated system sifts through them and detects about 400 potentially suspect emails each day — about 146,000 a year. That system sends alerts to CSE analysts, who then can take a closer look at the email to see if it poses any threat. Only about four emails per day — about 1,460 a year — are serious enough to warrant CSE security analysts contacting the government departments potentially affected.

The document says that CSE has “excellent access to full take data” as part of its cyber operations and is receiving policy support on “use of intercepted private communications.” The term “full take” is surveillance-agency jargon that refers to the bulk collection of both content and metadata from Internet traffic.

Another top-secret document on the surveillance dated from 2010 suggests the agency may be obtaining at least some of the data by covertly mining it directly from Canadian Internet cables. CSE notes in the document that it is “processing emails off the wire.”

The data analyzed by PONY EXPRESS can be obtained using Deep Packet Inspection Technology (DPI). Such technology works by observing small portions of internet traffic known as packets, and matching the information describing each packet against a library of signatures—including known applications, protocols, network activity, and more.

DPI hardware can also flag all internet traffic destined for a particular IP address, or range of IP addresses, such as those belonging to the Government of Canada. It’s possible that CSE’s EONBLUE program—which is believed to be based on DPI technology—​could be the first step in flagging email traffic for further analysis by PONY EXPRESS.

Since the 2010 documents were authored, it is likely the scale of the domestic data collection has increased. CSE states in the documents that it is working to bolster its capabilities. Under a heading marked “future,” the agency notes: “metadata continues to increase linearly with new access points.”

A CSE spokesman told The Intercept and CBC News in a statement that the agency eventually deletes intercepted Canadians’ emails if they are found to contain no cyberthreat, but would not comment on the amount of emails collected, or discuss the period of time that the messages are retained for.

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See: Dreamy, Nosey, Tracker & Paranoid: GCHQ’s Spying Smurfs Can Hide On Phones, Turn Them On, Eavesdrop & Locate

EONBLUE: CSE’s Cyber Threat Detection Platform; Access Internet Core Infrastructure with 200 Sensors Across Globe

In Archive, Canada, CSEC, Internet, NSA Files, Surveillance on February 25, 2015 at 10:34 PM

02/11/2015

Matthew Braga/Motherboard:

You might not think Canada’s digital spies are on par with those in the US and UK—but rest assured, America’s northern neighbour is just as capable of perpetuating mass surveillance on a global scale. Case in point: at over 200 locations around the world, spies from Canada’s cyberintelligence agency have been monitoring huge volumes of global internet traffic travelling across the internet’s core.

​From these locations, Communications Security Establishment (CSE) can track who is accessing websites and files of interest. Its analysts can also log email addresses, phone numbers and even the content of unencrypted communications—and retain encrypted communication for later study, too—as well as intercept passwords and login details for later access to remote servers and websites.

​But perhaps more importantly, tapping into global internet traffic is a means for CSE to monitor, and also exploit, an ever growing list of digital threats, such as vulnerabilities in networks and computers and the spread of malware as well as botnets and the computers under their control. In the process, analysts can keep tabs on both friendly and foreign governments conducting covert cyber attacks and infiltration of their own.

Such vast access to the backbone of the internet is achieved through a program called EONBLUE. According to documents (1) (2) leaked by whistleblower Edward Snowden,  ​and published by Der Spiegel last month, the program is designed to “track known threats,” “discover unknown threats,” and provide “defence at the core of the Internet.”

cse-eonblue-1

And while it may be tempting to dismiss this as yet another in a long line of revelations of mass surveillance, it is one of the clearest examples yet that Canada plays no small part in its Five Eyes partnership with intelligence agencies from Australia, New Zealand, the UK, and the US.

The meaning of threats, in this case, is two-fold: cyber attacks on network infrastructure and data, certainly, but also the online activities of terrorists believed to be plotting attacks against the physical world. The EONBLUE program is part of CSE’s Global Network Detection operations, which specialize in collecting signals intelligence from the movement of traffic online.

While the locations of EONBLUE sites are not disclosed in the documents, one slide makes reference to the internet’s “core” and describes EONBLUE’s ability to “scale to backbone internet speeds”—implying possible access to telecom operators, data centers, undersea cables and other infrastructure providers worldwide.

Such access would mean that much, if not all of the data, travelling through a location tapped by CSE could be subject to surveillance. Though the agency maintains it cannot legally track Canadians at home or abroad it is hard to fathom how such data could be exempt.

As of November 2010, when the document was dated, EONBLUE had already been under development for over eight years. However, it isn’t clear from the slides for how long EONBLUE has been used, or whether it is still in use today.

According to network security researchers consulted by Motherboard, EONBLUE is likely a global-scale implementation of ​a technology known as Deep Packet Inspection (DPI).

cse-eonblue-2

Such technology works by observing small portions of internet traffic known as packets, and matching the information describing each packet against a library of signatures—including known applications, protocols, network activity, and more. Internet service providers have been known to use DPI technology to identify subscribers using peer-to-peer filesharing protocols such as BitTorrent on their networks, for example. But such devices, generally speaking, can do much, much more.

Depending on how the system is configured, DPI hardware can: log the IP addresses of all users connecting to a website or webpage; log all activity from a certain IP, or blocks of IPs; identify applications being used on the network; look for cookies, email addresses, phone numbers, and other identifiers; identify encrypted traffic, and also the type of encryption used; identify the type of protocol a connection is using (for example, FTP or HTTP); locate the port that network traffic is connecting to or from; and, perhaps most concerning of all, modify certain types of traffic in real-time, in such a way that neither the sender or receiver would know any such tampering took place.

In other words, such a device can be instructed to lay bare your activities online.

It’s not clear what, exactly, EONBLUE is configured to monitor, but descriptions of other Canadian intelligence operations that rely on the program do offer some indication. For example, one document says that, thanks to EONBLUE, Canadian intelligence analysts identified a new type of malware, codenamed SNOWGLOBE, that they suspected was the work of French intelligence.

Because EONBLUE monitors network traffic, CSE was able to watch someone log into one of the remote computers, or listening posts, with which SNOWGLOBE communicated, and retrace the malware operator’s steps. This enabled Canadian intelligence to login to the listening post themselves, and see the data SNOWGLOBE had transmitted from the computers it had infected.

Another document outlining a roadmap for EONBLUE development references a Canadian version of ​the infamous US intelligence database XKEYSCORE. At the NSA, XKEYSCORE allowed analysts to query such information as the content of emails, browsing history, telephone numbers and online chats between Facebook users that, until July 2013, were not encrypted by default.

cse-eonblue-3

While it’s not clear how CSE’s XKEYSCORE functioned in practice, it’s clear Canadian spies were at least planning to develop a powerful database on par with that of its partner agencies in the US and UK—but using data that had been flagged by EONBLUE.

While the documents make it clear that EONBLUE relies on access to the internet’s core infrastructure—the physical cables and connection points across which most data in a geographic region travels—it’s not clear where, exactly, that access occurs.

“It’s difficult to understand how they’re doing this without violating the sovereignty and likely the criminal laws of at least some countries, allied countries even, abroad,” said Tamir Israel, a staff lawyer at the ​Canadian Internet Policy & Public Interest Clinic (CIPPIC).

One slide suggests that EONBLUE sits on-top of existing collection programs, such as SPECIALSOURCE, and  ​sometimes referred to as Special Source Operations (SSO)—a term that has been used in other documents to indicate direct access to fibre-optic cables and ISPs.

cse-eonblue-4

In other words, CSE’s partner agencies—or another division within CSE itself—are likely responsible for gaining physical access to internet infrastructure, and then making that data available to programs such as EONBLUE.

Curiously, one slide within the document hints at the existence of an Australian extension of EONBLUE operated by Australian Signals Directorate. Another refers to a Canadian special source. Whether that data source is located in Canada, or is a Canadian operator of infrastructure abroad, remains unclear.

According to documents jointly published by The Intercept and CBC, a CSE program codenamed LEVITATION tracked users downloading certain files from popular filesharing networks worldwide to identify extremists, while another program codenamed PONY EXPRESS sifts through millions of emails sent from Canadians to government agencies in a bid to detect potential cyber threats.

While there is no explicit link between the programs in any of the documents that have been publicly released, CSE could have instructed EONBLUE to flag the IP addresses of every user who attempted to access a bomb-making guide, for example, and send that information to a database for later analysis by LEVITATION.

The data analyzed by PONY EXPRESS can be obtained using Deep Packet Inspection Technology. DPI hardware can also flag all internet traffic destined for a particular IP address, or range of IP addresses, such as those belonging to the Government of Canada. It’s possible that CSE’s EONBLUE program—which is believed to be based on DPI technology—​could be the first step in flagging email traffic for further analysis by PONY EXPRESS.

It’s hard not to overstate the importance of what’s happening here. There are more eyes than we realize watching our data as it travels around the world. And it’s programs such as EONBLUE that prove the Canadian government is playing a much larger role in monitoring the internet than most might think—with a prowess that rivals both NSA and GCHQ.

CITIZENFOUR Wins Oscar for Best Documentary (Laura Poitras Acceptance Speech & Edward Snowden Statement)

In Archive, CITIZENFOUR, Greenwald, NSA, NSA Files, Poitras, Snowden, Surveillance on February 23, 2015 at 2:12 AM
citizenfour-oscar

Image via @citizenfour

02/22/2015

Laura Poitras has won an Academy Award for her documentary “CITIZENFOUR”, an inside look at National Security Agency whistleblower Edward Snowden.

The film, which has been hailed as a real-life thriller, chronicles Snowden’s effort to securely contact Poitras and Glenn Greenwald in 2013 and meet them in Hong Kong, where Poitras filmed Snowden discussing the thousands of classified NSA documents he was leaking to them, and his motives for doing so. The film takes its title from the pseudonym Snowden used when he contacted Poitras in encrypted emails that were revealed in her documentary.

WATCH CITIZENFOUR HERE

“The disclosures that Edward Snowden reveals don’t only expose a threat to our privacy but to our democracy itself,” Poitras said in her acceptance speech. “When the most important decisions being made affecting all of us are made in secret, we lose our ability to check the powers that control. Thank you to Edward Snowden for his courage and for the many other whistleblowers. And I share this with Glenn Greenwald and other journalists who are exposing truth.”

Edward Snowden statement via ACLU:

“When Laura Poitras asked me if she could film our encounters, I was extremely reluctant. I’m grateful that I allowed her to persuade me. The result is a brave and brilliant film that deserves the honor and recognition it has received. My hope is that this award will encourage more people to see the film and be inspired by its message that ordinary citizens, working together, can change the world.”

lindsay-mills

And Snowden’s reply to Neil Patrick Harris‘ treason joke:

“Wow the questions really blew up on this one. Let me start digging in…

To be honest, I laughed at NPH. I don’t think it was meant as a political statement, but even if it was, that’s not so bad. My perspective is if you’re not willing to be called a few names to help out your country, you don’t care enough.

If this be treason, then let us make the most of it.'”

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